Nationalism and disability interpenetrate in a variety of ways with a complex array of outcomes. Such an approach, however, can easily fall into politics, in which the groups are constructed as homogenous and with fixed boundaries, the interests of specific individuals within groups constructed as representing the interests of the whole group and the advancement of the specific group becomes primary. Daiva Stasiulis is Professor of Sociology at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada, where she has taught since 1983. Liberal construction of citizenship, according to Sandel, assumes the priority of right over good. For example, their right to formal citizenship might depend upon the rules and regulations of their country of origin in addition to those of the country where they live, as well as the relationship between the two.
The Home Office assumed that the arranged marriage system was abused by men and set up an entire interrogation system to check on the primary purpose of migration of the applicants. The privileging of males and elders justified in kin moralities and sanctified by religion, the hallmark of patriarchal kinship in Lebanon, was widespread in public arenas. Subject to change, it is acted upon collectively, or among individuals existing within social, political, and economic relations of collective conflict, which are shaped by gendered, racial, class and internationally based state hierarchies. It is a process which renders legal and legitimate discriminations based on whether individuals embody capital e. They reveal the transformative power of human agency, of ordinary people, including highly exploited and undocumented migrants. This was, however, not the case with post colonial migrants, leading to immense differences between the migration patterns of colonial-and labour migrants.
The dialogue, therefore, is never boundless. This is of particular imporance if we want to examine citizenship in a gendered non westocentric way. Sometimes the two can get confused. Furthermore people with disabilities can be disqualified due to illness or infirmity. Buy Citizenship: Pushing the Boundaries by The Feminist Review Collective from Australia's Online Independent Bookstore, Boomerang Books. People with disabilities, often without a voice, are rarely included in these discourses.
Patriarchal domestic and government institutions, idioms and modes of operation help subsidize the continuities between spheres in these societies in relationship to gender issues—even though there may be different forms of patriarchy at play. As capitalism faces conditions of chronic and deeply rooted crisis on an international scale, the naked drive towards profit maximization rather than raising living standards, and towards balancing state budgets rather than delivering state services, is increasingly accepted as the bottom line in global policy making and statecraft. Furthermore, globalization of economies, permeabilities of state boundaries and the universalizing of the market demand that we consider fundamental issues of inclusion and exclusion within both a national and international context Pettman, 1996. Instead, our goal should be a universalism which stands in creative tension to diversity and difference and which challenges the divisions and exclusionary inequalities which can stem from diversity. Traditionally, she claims, citizenship has been linked with the ability to take part in armed struggle for national defence, this ability has been equated with maleness, while femaleness has been equated with weakness and the need for male protection. To those who can afford it, this is not a completely closed-off system.
I am very grateful to Liz Gooster for tidying up my English. Second, first world imperialism, in a post-colonial world, stimulates ethnic cleavages in its own economic and political interests and supports insurgent nationalisms which lead to war Moghadam, 1994. This leads me to suggest that not only are there different relationships to the state because of subject positions defined by gender, ethnicity, race, religion as structural categories of society, but there are different relationships to the state based on different constructs of selfhood embodied in the meanings of the citizen person and the practice of rights linked to different meanings of the citizen person. Talking about migrant women today means talking about an extraordinarily heterogeneous group, encompassing significant differences in educational, social, cultural and ethnic backgrounds. While this argument is particularly relevant in identifying the contradictions between the citizenship ideal and the reality of a declining level of access to citizenship rights in the contemporary conjuncture of the world system, it also sheds light on the historic development of citizenship in advanced capitalist liberal democracies.
Sexual and physical violence and abuse are a constant concern for both women workers and women residents in group homes and segregated living units. This parallels a fracturing of the body politic and a rise of self-centred individualism Eisenstein, 1996. Women work more than men in the public sector and, unlike in the former Soviet bloc, have had high rates of political representation. Other responses were their mother nine ; combinations of relatives three ; another relative or person three ; and eldest daughter two. It appears that the more hierarchically developed a society, the more dominant formal bureaucratically organized institutions are, the more disembedded political institutions are from the domestic and the more successful political institutions are in displacing domestic institutions, the more likely it is that such a society would value and institutionalize firm boundaries and discontinuities between arenas of social life. Cultural needs are not fixed a-historical essentialist characteristics of collectivities.
Race, ethnicity, class or gender identity influence some of the major citizenship debates in Australia, such as the proposed rewriting of the Constitution, the formulation of a republic and the unequal representation of women in Parliament. Of note is the fact that, among both groups of women, more directed their remittance cheques to their mothers than to their husbands, and more to other relatives in general than to their husbands. Recently the discourse of citizenship has expanded to encompass a wider range of rights and responsibilities. There are also numerous commonalities, however, such as the issue of gaining entry to the countries of destination. Ruling élites in Lebanon have relied upon patriarchal kinship structures, modes of operation and idioms. On different grounds, the proponents of republicanism such as Sandel 1982 , also find the individualistic construction of citizenship highly unsatisfactory. A citizenship which acknowledges disability is fundamental to re-imaging local, national and international collectivities.
Categorization of women on the basis of their gender emerges with the state, she argues, implying that it is with the state that women are discriminated against, categorically, as women. Disability challenges fundamental notions of normalcy and, thus, ironically may have great potency for widening citizenship debates. Remittances and family support The survey indicated the importance for both groups of workers of financially supporting family members back home. We cannot, for instance, understand the gendered patterns of entry to citizenship in the public sphere without taking into account the sexual division of labour within the private. Second, their experience shows that the differential relations of power between men and women, including sexual harassment, continue also within the military domain and therefore it cannot automatically be considered as empowering women.
A connective self, which I have detailed theoretically and empirically elsewhere Joseph, 1993b, 1994a, 1994b , is one that sees itself embedded in others and fosters relationality as a central charter of selfhood. Issues identified are constructed around the right of access to formal mechanisms of democratic governance, which include standing sic for election, serving in public office and voting. Citizenship needs to be examined, therefore, not just in terms of state, but often in relation to multiple formal and informal citizenships in more than one country, and most importantly, to view them from a perspective which would include the different positioning of different states as well as the different positionings of individuals and groupings within states Bakan and Stasiulis, 1994. In so doing the collection traverses and undermines the conceptual boundaries which would separate issues of nation and state from those of family, community, identity and, in this, refigures the analytical terrain of citizenship. Yet maternal citizenship fails to comprehend the unequal power relationships inherent in care Voet, 1994. Feminist, Marxist, liberal and social movement theorists are reformulating citizenship in relation to these changing conditions of a post-cold war era for summaries of contemporary debates on citizenship, see Andrews, 1991; Bulmer and Rees, 1996; Kymlicka and Norman 1994; and Yuval-Davis, 1996.
The Maastricht treaty of 1992 acknowledges not only the right of free settlement for European citizens but also the right to participate in local elections. In two rural courts in New South Wales with a high Aboriginal populations, it was found that more than one third of those appearing were intellectually disabled and a further 20 per cent were borderline, indicating that over half would have difficulty in understanding the court processes New South Wales Law Reform Commission, 1996. In developing her self, the individual is also acting upon, and thereby potentially changing the world, a world which at the same time structures the choices available see also Twine, 1994. Feminist Review is available both on subscription and from bookstores. Together with the reconstruction of the public-private dichotomy, these ideas are offered as possible building blocks in the elaboration of a feminist theory of citizenship, which draws on principles of synthesis rather than dichotomy. It should also take into consideration global and transnational positionings of these citizenships. Strategies for negotiating citizenship compared: the experiences of West Indian and Filipino domestic workers in Canada Based on a survey of foreign domestic workers living in Toronto, the remainder of this paper offers a comparative analysis of the experiences of women currently working in the homes of wealthy Canadian families.