Characteristics of communities that foster distrust among neighbors, such as neglected properties and criminal activity, can affect both the cohesiveness of neighbors as well as the frequency of poor health outcomes Center on Human Needs, 2012b. Socioeconomic differences in health are large, persistent, and widespread across different societies and for a diverse range of health outcomes. Separate chapters on community health initiatives thoroughly describe different approaches to promoting health among populations. And with today's rapid rate of globalization, and these hazardous health effects are likely to increase, with low income and underrepresented communities facing even greater risks. Most obviously, income enables individuals to purchase various goods and services e. An Introduction to the Geography of Health provides an accessible introduction to this rapidly growing field, covering theoretical and methodological background.
While income represents the flow of resources over a defined period, wealth captures the stock of assets minus liabilities at a given point in time, and thus indicates economic reserves. In this paper, we argue that health complaints are more likely to be explained by the nocebo response, whereby adverse effects are generated by negative expectations. These issues are investigated by considering range of developing and developed countries, medical systems and health economic perspectives. It spans a wide range of topics, theoretical perspectives, and methodologies - including anti-racism, post-colonialism, spatial statistics, spatiotemporal modeling, political ecology, and social network analysis. Neighborhood violent crime has in turn been linked to low birth weight Morenoff, 2003 and childhood asthma Wright, 2006 , two other health conditions that appear to be more common in the United States than in other high-income countries. Implementation of those techniques appears at an increasing pace in commercial Geographic Information Systems, alongside more traditional techniques that are already part of such systems.
My work on environmental health has come to some closure with a book with Jamie Baxter on Environments, Risks and Health. The epidemiological methods were applied longitudinally and include a health diary and the hygiene index. It goes on to look in detail at how our mental health is associated with material, or physical, aspects of our environment such as 'natural' and built landscapes , with social environments involving social relationships in communities , and with symbolic and imagined spaces representing the personal, cultural and spiritual meanings of places. This article revisits three such notions: racial segregation, environmental exposure, and accessibility. With case studies from across the globe, authors take a geographical lens to the important topic of transport and mobility in later life. Indeed, a major motivation for the research on environmental determinants of health has been the repeated observation that many health outcomes are spatially patterned.
These economic, social, urban or rural, transportation, and other policies that affect the environment were not traditionally thought of as relevant to health policy but are now attracting greater attention because decision makers are beginning to recognize their health implications Cole and Fielding, 2007. Environments that discourage physical activity may also limit social interactions, with potential implications for violence and drug use. With boxed case studies of specific research ideas and methods, chapter summaries and suggestions for introductory reading, this book offers a comprehensive introduction which will be valuable for students of health geography, public health, sociology and anthropology of health and illness. Drawing on the expertise of geographers, educationists, anthropologists, psychologists, planners and public health researchers, as well as nurses and social workers, this book, above all, sees children as the experts on their experiences of the issues that affect their wellbeing. Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods as a proxy for a range of environmental exposures has been linked to higher rates of injury in both adults and children Cubbin et al.
Social Factors International comparisons of the social environment are complicated by difficulties in obtaining comparable measures of social environments. Contemporary Chinese cities are facing a wide range of challenges in the transformation process. That is, the relationship between the two variables is acknowledged to be dynamic and reciprocal. It should be emphasized at the outset that the social determinants of health can be conceptualized as influencing health at multiple levels throughout the life course. The final chapters of the book consider spaces of care and the implications of space and place for public mental health policy, offering a broader view of how mental health might be improved at the population level. It also provides an interdisciplinary review of the literature, by the author and by other writers, to frame a discussion of issues that challenge more advanced researchers in these fields. According to attachment theory, secure attachments during infancy satisfy a universal human need to form close affective bonds.
It argues for the need to expand our analytical focus from static residential spaces to other relevant places and times in people's everyday lives. Engaged Buddhist practices and teachings correspond closely to insights in contemporary political philosophical investigations into the nature of power, notably by Michel Foucault. Features of social environments that may operate as stressors including perceptions of safety and social disorder have been linked to mental health, as have factors that could buffer the adverse effects of stress e. It is the problem that results about these effects can be affected by how contextual units or neighborhoods are geographically delineated and the extent to which these areal units deviate from the true geographic context. Social support refers to the various types of assistance that people receive from their social networks and can be further differentiated into three types: instrumental, emotional, and informational support. In this consumer age, the underlying teachings of Buddhist mindfulness offer more than individual well-being and resilience. Environmental pollution is a major problem in China, subjecting people to significant health risk.
Results reveal robust associations between exposure to environmental hazards and health. There was also less variation in active travel among socioeconomic groups in Germany than in the United States Buehler et al. Is it likely to happen? Chapters cover topics at the cutting edge of the sub-discipline, including emerging and re-emerging diseases, the politics of disease, mental and emotional health, landscapes of despair, and the geography of care. While putting forward a number of different points of view, there is a particular emphasis on ideas and research from health geography, which conceptualises space and place in ways that provide a distinctive focus on the interactions between people and their social and physical environment. Category: Social Science Author : Anthony C.
Many of these issues relate to the need to develop theory and specific hypotheses on the processes through which neighborhood and individual factors may jointly influence specific health outcomes. In many ways, it is the same cognitive limitation, i. Die Zielsetzung dieses Bandes besteht darin, auch Nicht-Sozialwissenschaftlern ein Grundverständnis über sozialwissenschaftliche Zusammenhänge, als Ursache und zugleich auch Lösung verschiedenartiger Umweltprobleme, zu vermitteln. Studies have shown consistent relationships between social capital and self-reported health status, as well as to some measures of mortality Barefoot et al. Can it be made safe? In the 21st century, pressures on water resources in the United States are growing and conflicts among water users are worsening. We discuss some of the theory which might illuminate the possible impact of place on health inequalities.
Social support and the administration of oxytocin have been shown to reduce stress responses during a public speaking task. There may, of course, be gene-environment interactions involved in the ways in which these two separate influences shape the patterns of health across the life course. Implementation of those techniques appears at an increasing pace in commercial Geographic Information Systems, alongside more traditional techniques that are already part of such systems. Results: Both surface and wastewater do not meet the standard for restricted irrigation 9. A research agenda for expanding the scope of such research has already been outlined by previous National Research Council reports.
The authors consider the limited literature in medical geography which has taken a more overtly theoretical perspective on the role of locality. The promising results from comparisons and the interesting findings from the empirical part suggest both a methodological and conceptual improvement in capturing the complexity of local activity spaces. The worldwide expansion of wind energy has met with opposition based on concerns that the infrasound generated by wind turbines causes health problems in nearby residents. Injuries The dominant land use and development pattern espoused in the United States for decades Richardson and Bae, 2004 has created dependence on private automobile transportation, with important implications for traffic volume and associated traffic injuries and fatalities Transportation Research Board, 2009. By bringing to light larger structures and histories that underpin the settler colonial project, I examine a series of toxic encounters and consider the racialised hegemonic narratives that enable the production toxicity.