Chemical structures of all the new compounds were confirmed by spec-trophotometric methods. Moreover, the inhibitory activities of the mentioned compounds against dermatophytes Micro-sporum canis and Epidermophyton flocossum which were identified by morphological and physiological tests were also examined. Benzimidazoles have also been prepared on a solid phase to prove a combinatorial approach. This method could be easily practiced in laboratories within the stipulated time. It is the constituent of several natural compounds like histamine, histamine, biotin, alkaloids and nucleic acid and a very important class among the medicinal compounds. In an acute study, the animals of all groups were treated with the respective drugs 30 minutes prior to the experiment. A versatile and modular one-pot method allows the preparation of differently substituted symmetrical and unsymmetrical imidazolium salts from readily available formamidines and α-halo ketones.
In the evaluation of anti-anxiety activity, the experimental model used in our study was an elevated plus maze. Anxiety is a generalized mood or condition that occurs without an identifiable triggering stimulus. The E-mail message field is required. The organic layer quenched with saturated solution of NaCl in water and evaporated to get the amide intermediate. Imidazole can also be found in various compounds that are used for and.
The compound is classified as due to the presence of a sextet of , consisting of a pair of electrons from the protonated nitrogen atom and one from each of the remaining four atoms of the ring. Therefore, we employed acetonitrile as the solvent, and tetra ethyl ammonium iodide, anhydrous potassium carbonate, and sodium hydroxide as catalysts. Ring Synthesis by Formation of One Bond. A new compound of 2-aminothiazole also was prepared by the reaction of a piperazine moiety with an amide intermediate of 2-aminothiazole. An extensive list of references is included in each chapter and the index will direct readers to examples of specific compound types throughout the book. The synthesized benzimidazole compounds were screened for acute and chronic anti-anxiety activity in Wistar rats by using an elevated plus maze model with standard Diazepam.
In this method 1-triphenylmethyl-imidazole 1c , 1- bis-4-methoxyphenyl -phenylmethyl-benzimidazole 6d and 1- 4-methoxyphenyl -diphenylmethyl-imidazole 2c showed 100%, 90% and 70% activity respectively. Other Important Information is there in this video. The biological results are presented in Tables and. Purification was carried out by plate chromatography. Azole compounds are divided into the older imidazoles and the new triazoles. The number of entries and time spent in the open and closed arms of the elevated plus maze, using rats, was observed in acute and chronic studies for 1day and 10 days, respectively. Srinivasan, Tetrahedron, 2005, 61, 3539-3546.
A small sampling of these methods is presented below. Many compounds of industrial and technological importance contain imidazole derivatives. The purpose of this study was to synthesize of some new benzimidazole, benzotriazole and aminothiazole derivatives and to evaluate their activity against some species of Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophytes. In this study compound 2c piperazine analogue was affective only on the dermatophytes. Some of Candida species such as C. Unfortunately, none of the antifungal drugs which are currently available for the treatment of systemic mycoses are ideal in terms of efficacy, antifungal spectrum or safety. Each experiment was performed in triplicate.
The addition of potassium iodide and the use of 1,2-dimethoxyethane as a solvent allowed the synthesis of multigram quantities of these salts. It also collects non-ring-synthetic approaches to classes of compounds such as nitro-, halogeno-, and amino-imidazoles, and more. Other biological activities of the imidazole relate to the downregulation of intracellular and fluxes, and interference with translation initiation. In the second step, piperazine 2-ethanol was reacted with the amide intermediate in the similar condition as benzimidazole and benzotriazole compounds reacted with bromoalkanes. Compounds 3a and 4a had moderate activity against tested clinical species of Candida at 0. These imidazoles share the 1,3-C 3N 2 ring but feature varied substituents.
General procedure for the synthesis of benzotriazole series series b A Solution of 595 mg benzotriazole 5 mmol , 0. All compounds were investigated for antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida parapeilosis, Candida kruzei, Candida dubliniensis, Aspergillus fomigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophyte, Epidermophyton floccosum. These predict electrophilic attack in imidazole at N-3 or any ring carbon atom, nucleophilic attack at C-2 or C-1 and also the amphoteric nature of the molecule. Biological significance and applications Imidazole is incorporated into many important biological molecules. Treatment group Open arm entries Closed arm entries Total entries Time spent in open arm Time spent in closed arm Control 2. A possible reaction mechanism is proposed.
The copper-catalyzed reaction between two different isocyanides produces imidazoles in good yields. Azole antifungal activity varies with each compound and clinical efficacy may not coincide with in vitro activity. The triazoles have been shown to have a higher specificity for the cytochrome P450 than imidazoles, thereby making them more potent than the imidazoles. The use of inexpensive copper sulfate as a catalyst and readily available starting materials makes this protocol economically viable. The most prominent benzimidazole complex features N-ribosyl-dimethylbenzimidazole as found in. Comprehensive Pharmacy Review 6th ed.
Full synthetic details are provided for selected compounds and tables of examples list percentage yields. Sureja Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry Shree H. In printed circuit board manufacturing, benzimidazole can be used as an. Imidazoles belong to the class of , which includes , , and. Our strategy was to modify the reported methods to get N1-substituted of the azoles in higher yield.
In the previous reports, we described the preparation of a number of imidazole, benzimidazole and benzotriazole derivatives with biological interest —. Imidazole-based histidine compounds play a very important role in intracellular buffering. Bhagat, Synlett, 2016, 27, 404-408. Imidazoles shows a large value of dipole moment of 4. It also collects non-ring-synthetic approaches to classes of compounds such as nitro-, halogeno-, and amino-imidazoles, and covers the synthesis of N-substituted compounds and preparations of specific isomers. A multicomponent protocol enables the synthesis of highly substituted imidazole derivatives in excellent yield from various α-azido chalcones, aryl aldehydes, and anilines in the presence of erbium triflate as a catalyst. Details of the synthetic procedures are given below.