A capillary zone electrophoretic method has been discussed for quantification of Hb A 2 in the presence of Hb S that eliminates interference from these adducts. The small intestine ends in a large bag-shaped organ, the large intestine. If your frog is an immature female, the pale, empty ovaries are located ventral to the kidneys. When students ask me questions, I require them to at least have a book open to the appropriate page to show me they tried to find the answer on their own. At alkaline pH, electrophoretic migration of Hb C, Hb E, Hb A 2, and Hb O is similar. On either side of the vomerine teeth are the openings of the internal nares.
They result from an increase in the ratio of cell surface area to cell volume. Various authorities differ with respect to the necessity for freshly obtained blood samples. The pylorus leads into the long, coiled small intestine. Erythrocytosis and a mild hypochromic microcytic anemia characterize this heterozygous condition. If this happens, use eyewash and liberally flush eye with water.
The most common of these, seen almost exclusively in South East Asians, is Hb E. The thalassemia minor syndromes are characterized clinically by mild anemia with persistent microcytosis. This protects the eye while the frog is under water. The primary clinical importance of Hb E trait is the risk of co-inheritance with the thalassemia syndromes, which occur in the same population groups. The major clinical impact of these hemoglobinopathies results from co-inheritance with Hb S, which occurs in a similar population and which if inherited with either Hb O Arab or Hb D Punjab may produce a severe sickling disorder. The kidneys lie on either side of the backbone. The large reddish-brown organ in the upper part of the abdominal cavity is the liver.
Younger students may need more help than older students. The teeth you feel are the maxillary teeth. Behind the middle lobe, look for a greenish, pea-shaped gland. Look for the bronchial tubes that extend from the anterior part of the lungs and join with the trachea, or windpipe. The urinary bladder is connected to the cloaca.
Posterior to each eye is a circular region of tightly stretched skin. The yellow, fingerlike structures are the fat bodies. The relevance of each of these analytic components is discussed below. Frogs are among the most commonly studied organisms in biology. A systematic nomenclature that is both logical and informative identifies the chain, the location, and the amino acid substitution on the involved globin chain. Heart 2 atria 1 ventricle 33.
Students should wash hands even if they wore gloves. The thalassemias are characterized by a reduction in the amount of the normal globin chain produced. Notice the shape of the stomach. The fetus typically is hydropic and severely anemic, and frequently in these cases, prenatal diagnosis is required. Notice that most of the organs are held in place by thin, transparent tissues called mesenteries. Thalassemia, in contrast, results from quantitative reductions in globin chain synthesis. Students, to answer the questions, you simply need to read carefully, the answers are in the instructions.
If your frog is a male, it possess testes, tiny white or yellow organs found on the ventral surface of the kidneys. Is your frog a male or a female? Abstract Structural hemoglobin Hb variants typically are based on a point mutation in a globin gene that produce a single amino acid substitution in a globin chain. In addition to decreased Hb production, however, manifestations of the thalassemias are complicated by the resulting chain imbalance: In the α-thalassemias, β- and γ-globin chains are produced in excess. Remove the pins holding the skin in place. Locate the forelegs and hindlegs. During fetal development, β-like globin chains ε and γ contribute to the Hb. The Hb H stain is nonspecific in that other nucleic acid or protein precipitates also stain.
Bullfrogs are much larger, but that doesn't mean they are easier to dissect. In contrast, α-thalassemia minor may be associated with as few as 1 inclusion-containing cell in 1000—10 000 cells. Follow your teacher's instructions for storing the frog for further use or properly disposing of the frog and its parts. A small, twisted tube called the ureter leads from each kidney into the saclike urinary bladder. Electrophoresis, is slow, labor-intensive, and inaccurate in the quantification of low-concentration Hb variants e.
The thalassemia minor conditions produce minimal decrements in the Hb concentration, whereas thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia major may be associated with moderate to severe decreases in Hb concentration. Amphibians have adaptations for living in terrestrial as well as aquatic environments. Goggles should be worn at all times. Cut jaws on both sides along the dotted line. These substitutions are most common at positions in close proximity to either heme group or globin chain attachment sites.
They are present in male frogs but not in female frogs. The clinical manifestations occur only in individuals with homozygous sickle cell disease. By studying the anatomy of the frog, you will be better able to understand your own body. How many digits are on each of the frog's hands? The ovaries are white sacs swollen with tiny black-and-white eggs. In general, the more genes affected, the more significant the complications of the disorder. Fat bodies store energy for hibernation.