Russia also used the crisis to increase its influence in Europe and Asia. However, to address this threat, the United States has spent billions of dollars, thus forgoing the opportunity to use the money for internal needs. Further, international agreements govern the use of strategic reserves. Oil money was also decisive for the rise of the Taliban, who also studied in the Saudi-sponsored schools and offered al-Qaeda a safe heaven for its operations in Afghanistan. When the author tries to tie the decreasing influence of al-Qaeda within the Muslim world to oil, it seems rather forced, since U. This should come as no surprise given the recent policy shifts in Ankara and the increasing Islamist orientation of the Turkish government. Furthermore, no additional attacks by al-Qaeda were included in the scenario beyond the first day.
It is not aggressive and seeks to avoid confrontation. Al-Qaeda also reached out to Turkey for support. Democratization and Leadership for Good Governance. However, on the international level, the United States limited itself to issuing declarations and public statements, which disappointed U. Russia attempted to increase its share of the European and Asian energy markets. In response, Russia reacted by encouraging increases in the Russian population in the Far East.
Russia took advantage of the U. The lessons learned from these harmful policy choices should serve as a cautionary tale as America faces similar energy challenges. Moreover, a whole chapter is dedicated to rising anti-Americanism. Some opportunities exist for substituting other sources of energy for petroleum. The Persian Gulf, a major energy source and transportation hub, is gaining in importance, making freedom of navigation through the Strait of Hormuz a vital American and global interest. It is time for Washington to distinguish between the real and perceived threat from al-Qaeda.
Effective counterterrorism and media strategies were lacking. In The Petroleum Triangle, Yetiv moves one step forward, connecting terrorism with the urgency for new energy policies. When it comes to September 11, oil plays a crucial role in explaining al-Qaeda's motivations. The effects are assumed to roughly offset. Under normal circumstances, tanks are half full. Why Energy Crisis Simulation Is Important The demand for oil is growing, driven mostly by China, India, and other developing countries.
He has served as an expert witness for terrorism-related court cases, and has provided testimony and briefings to committee hearings of the U. Middle East -- Foreign relations -- United States. Foreign Policy in the Middle East and the Old Gulf; 6. This gave al-Qaeda a better chance and more possibilities to expand its operations. This adjustment took only about a month in 2005. Real-world policymakers need to develop comprehensive policy responses to address this challenge.
These sections do not provide the main argument with value-added information but seem to be digressions that weaken the author's thesis. The issue of Taiwan has to be seen in the context of U. Another external goal is Chinese geopolitical preeminence in East Asia. Significant oil reserves gave a major boost to Iranians and their ability to achieve their objectives and reach out to other players. . The Gulf of Guinea now provides almost a fifth of the oil consumed in the United States -- and that proportion is likely to rise in the coming years. Al-Qaeda limited its activities to calls for jihad in the United States, Saudi Arabia, and worldwide.
It is not aggressive and seeks to avoid confrontation. In his mind, oil was instrumental in magnifying U. In essence, a low price guarantee without a change in oil production is simply a wealth transfer from the oil-producing country to the target beneficiary. For example, Japan reached out to Iran and Russia. Global operations would be more difficult to conduct. Similar political, social, and economic challenges-poverty, corruption, lack of infrastructure, and weak governments-are seen in the oil-producing states of both the Middle East and Africa. Despite its oil wealth, the quality of life in the Arab World is considered lower than in many Latin American and East Asian developing countries.
Saudi Arabia decided to conduct reprisals against al-Qaeda while seeking to maintain its religious credibility at the same time. The oil shocks following the Arab oil embargo in 1973—1974 and the revolution in Iran in 1979 occurred during a period of high inflation and low economic growth. The authors argue that lessons learned from our experience in the Middle East should be applied to our burgeoning energy security interests in Western and Sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion 297 Appendix A: Global Oil Reserves, Production and Consumption 311 Bibliography 317 Index 327 About the Authors 339 Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: United States -- Foreign relations -- Africa, West. Forest has been interviewed by many newspaper, radio and television journalists, and is regularly invited to give speeches and lectures in the U.